[Fakelinks 23.7.2019] Deepfake Forensics; Gesetzgebung unzureichend für Deepfake-Porno; GPT-2 als politisches Bedrohungsszenario

Scientists Are Taking the Fight Against Deepfakes to Another Level: In two recent research papers, we described ways to detect deepfakes with flaws that can’t be fixed easily by the fakers.
[1] When a deepfake video synthesis algorithm generates new facial expressions, the new images don’t always match the exact positioning of the person’s head, or the lighting conditions, or the distance to the camera. To make the fake faces blend into the surroundings, they have to be geometrically transformed – rotated, resized or otherwise distorted. This process leaves digital artifacts in the resulting image. […]
[2] Video that captures a real person shows their face moving in three dimensions, but deepfake algorithms are not yet able to fabricate faces in 3D. Instead, they generate a regular two-dimensional image of the face and then try to rotate, resize and distort that image to fit the direction the person is meant to be looking. They don’t yet do this very well, which provides an opportunity for detection.

• Neue Studie bescheinigt der britischen Gesetzgebung mangelnde Handhabe gegen Deepfake-Porn: ‘Deepfake’ porn perpetrators are being given a free hand because the law is unfit for purpose, study finds: „Due to the serious legal and policy failings identified in this report, we are effectively gambling with people’s lives. We found that image-based sexual abuse can shatter lives, often experienced as an entire ‘social rupture’ of their world.“ She said that “out-of-date and piecemeal laws” must be overhauled, “including criminalising the paralysing and life-threatening impact of threats, and recognising the significant harms of fake porn”.
Prof McGlynn urged ministers to introduce a new law criminalising all forms of non-consensual taking or sharing of sexual images, including threats and altered images.“

Hollywood Reporter: Deepfakes Pose Increasing Legal and Ethical Issues for Hollywood, interessante Besprechung von einer Art Persönlichkeits-Lizenzrecht angesichts von Deepfakes und den Problemen, die das mit sich bringen könnte. Ist etwa das lizensierbare Persönlichkeitsrecht eines insolvent gegangenen Schauspielers Teil der Konkursmasse und damit veräußerlich? Ey Brooker, nette Black Mirror-Folge hier!

the New York bill would have established that a person’s name, picture, voice and signature are “property rights,” going beyond what many states consider privacy concerns. What’s more, a person’s right of publicity would be also by law “freely transferable” by contract. Jeffrey Bennett, deputy general counsel at SAG-AFTRA, gives a modest interpretation of what this means. “When you think of publicity rights as a property right, you would be able to license its use,” he says, as when Carrie Fisher licensed her likeness for new Star Wars films. “With regards to transferability, all we are talking about is licenses.”

But others have sounded the alarm about the dangerous implications of transferability. Jennifer Rothman, a Loyola Law School professor, warns that making such rights alienable could end up backfiring. “For example, if a celebrity declared bankruptcy, then her creditors could take ownership of her publicity rights,” she says. “Similarly, ex-spouses could take an ownership interest in a person’s identity when assets of the marriage are split.” So Brad could have owned half of Angelina and vice versa.

• Der Einfluss von Twitter-Fake-Accounts im Nahen Ostern: Al Jazeera: The fake Twitter accounts influencing the Gulf crisis, ‘It exists to demobilise opposition’: How Twitter fails Arabs und How armies of fake accounts ‘ruined’ Twitter in the Middle East.

Governments making “fake news” a crime risk stifling real journalism — accidentally or intentionally.

• Good point: While reporting on fake porn, you don’t have to use that fake porn: Deepfakes and Fake Nudes Could Become a Big Problem. News Organizations Don’t Have to Publish Them..

Deepfake revenge porn distribution now a crime in Virginia

Could ‘fake text’ be the next global political threat?

In California, It’s Now Illegal For Some Bots to Pretend to Be Human: Known as the B.O.T (“Bolstering Online Transparency”) Act or California Senate bill 1001, the legislation “make[s] it unlawful for any person to use a bot to communicate or interact with another person in California online with the intent to mislead the other person about its artificial identity.”

• Sam Gregory von der NGO Witness über Deepfakes beim International Journalism Festival: Prepare, don’t panic: dealing with deepfakes and other synthetic media. Inhaltlich für NC-Leser eher uninteressant, aber ‘ne nette Zusammenfassung der Thematik für Anfänger. Ebenfalls eher eine Zusammenfassung des Themas, sein Vortrag beim Digital Forensic Research Lab: 360/OS 2019: Deepfakes — It’s Not What It Looks Like!.

Nathaniel Gleicher (Facebooks Head of Cybersecurity Policy) über Disinformation auf den Plattformen, „The ‘Professionalization’ of Information Operations“ und „The Rise of Disinformation about Disinformation“.

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